Comparison of flow patterns of rivers
Parallel drainage pattern
In contrast to meanders in alluvium that erode and migrate rapidly or get cut off at the neck abruptly, entrenched meanders are relatively fixed. Valleys draining alpine glaciers are common settings for braided streams. The length of the dry weather period preceding the runoff event impacts the amount of constituents accumulated in the catchment prior to being washed off by surface or subsurface flows. As demonstrated in Figure 2 , suspended solids both organic and inorganic particulates are mobilized by processes of weathering or displacement by wind, water, or anthropogenic activities. Discordant drainage patterns are classified into two main types: antecedent and superimposed,  while anteposition drainage patterns combine the two. Once the stream channel has begun to curve, the energy of the water is concentrated on the outside of the curve. The glaciers deposit more sediment into the meltwater stream system than a stream of that discharge has capacity to transport in a single channel system.
Stream Order It is common for one stream to flow into another. Similarly, nutrients in the particulate phase are largely transported by overland flow pathways, with dissolved nutrients transported by both overland and subsurface flows.
The year flood magnitude, and maps that show what would be covered by a year flood, are key elements in granting permits for land use and building construction in floodplains.
Barbed drainage pattern
If a lake forms the stream feeding it will slow down and deposit sediment until the lake has been filled with sediment. Rectangular Drainage The drainage pattern marked by right-angled bends and right-angled junctions between tributaries and the main stream is known as rectangular drainage. Several factors cause a stream to slow down, including the stream channel widening, the stream overflowing its banks and spreading into a floodplain, the stream gradient downhill slope diminishing, and the stream emptying into a larger, slower moving body of water. The melting of the glaciers left land with many irregularities of elevation and a great deal of water to collect in the low points, explaining the large number of lakes which are found in Canada. Streams will radiate in all directions from the center of a broad, high-elevation area, such as a composite cone. Each river or stream has its own natural flow characteristics, such as peak flows following rain or high spring flows from snow melt. Centripetal drainage pattern[ edit ] The centripetal drainage system is similar to the radial drainage system, with the only exception is that they have streams ending into a lowland rather originating from it. It differs from the trellis pattern in so far as it is more irregular and its tributary streams are neither as long, nor parallel as in trellis drainage. To truly understand how water is produced and transferred in large northern rivers, the spatial and temporal complexity of flow-generation mechanisms and storage effects need to be unravelled. The small and swift rivers originating in the Western Ghats and discharging their water into the Arabian Sea provide a good example of parallel drainage pattern in India. Once the stream has cut through the neck of the meander, the openings get filled with sediment dropped by water that slows down as it enters from the main stream.
Rills coalesce to form larger channels. The Mississippi River delta is an example of a stream dominated delta.
First, we provide a summary of the important factors underlying the spatial differences in particulate and dissolved constituent concentrations in rivers and streams.
Sources of excess sediment that lead to braided streams include glaciers, eruptions of pyroclastic material by volcanoes and landslides. The diagram shows a stretch of stream channel with a significant bend, also known as meander.
Centripetal drainage pattern
Due to the northward slope of the Peninsula towards the Great Plains, the rivers originating from the Vindhyan and the Satpura ranges flow northward into the Ganga system. In the last several decades a new risk of submergence has arisen for marine deltas. Rivers are major agents of landscape modification and, in turn, are greatly influenced by the catchments through which they flow. It tends to develop on the flanks of a dome or a volcanic cone. As the meander is enlarged, its neck gets narrower. The stream starts to deposit sediment, beginning with the largest pieces. Deranged Pattern This is an uncoordinated pattern of drainage characteristic of a region recently vacated by an ice-sheet. As stream valleys develop in the joint system a rectangular drainage pattern develops, as shown in figure 3. Subsequent Rivers A tributary stream that is eroded along an underlying belt of non-resistant rock after the main drainage pattern Consequent River has been established is known as a subsequent river. A stream drainage area is also called a watershed. A graded profile starts with a steep slope at the beginning of the stream and tapers to a gentle slope at the base level of the stream. A dendritic drainage pattern is the most common type. Riverine water quality can vary significantly both within and between river catchments.
These constituents have been selected because they have been widely studied, and because they can have deleterious impacts on receiving rivers.
based on 111 review