There is limited evidence that nicotine exerts a priming effect on brain circuitry, which helps to explain why nicotine is frequently used as a precursor to other hard drugs [ 46 ]. The burden of smoking-attributable disease Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable mortality worldwide, contributing to the death of approximatelyAmericans annually [ 3 ].
Consequently, there is an urgent need for novel cessation therapies that target both the physiological and behavioral components of cigarette smoking. The same should be expected of e-cigarettes, probably leading to eventual high product uptake among non-smokers.
Their right to smoke took priority. Similarly modest risk reductions found in other studies have led researchers to hypothesize that cigarette reduction among heavy smokers is frequently accompanied by compensatory smoking behavior, including prolonging the duration of each cigarette smoked [ 40 — 42 ].
The pro-legislation argument won in the end. Overall, the available evidence supports the cautionary implementation of harm reduction interventions aimed at promoting e-cigarettes as attractive and competitive alternatives to cigarette smoking, while taking measures to protect vulnerable groups and individuals.
At the same time, we insist that, in line with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Controlthis product must not allow any tobacco company a foot in the door to unduly influence tobacco policy. Without action, this century it could claim the lives of a billion people, mostly in low and middle income countries.
This evidence-based advocacy organisation was set up by the Royal College of Physicians to reduce the harm caused by tobacco.
Similarly, a review of 19 controlled, cohort, case—control, and experimental studies examining the impact of reduction messages on smoking cessation revealed no study concluded that smoking reduction decreases subsequent smoking cessation among smokers unwilling to quit [ 44 ].
Ironically, the first licensed e-cigarette will be marketed by a wholly owned subsidiary of British American Tobacco. Thus, despite improvements in biomarkers including hemoglobin, leukocyte counts, fibrinogen, and cholesterol, there is no evidence that reducing smoking to as few as ten cigarettes per day produces improvements in clinical cardiovascular disease outcomes [ 3 ].
Perhaps it is really fear of the unknown and a residual desire to punish smokers and vapers that are driving the call for strict regulation?