English acquisition for immigrants
Studies using microdata for Canada, Germany, and the US find these indicators to be positively associated with host country language proficiency levels  , . The most decisive factor is the age of arrival in the host country. Most immigrants acquire the host country language through daily exposure and through involvement in day to day activities learning by doing. Higher wage returns and better job opportunities create incentives to invest in the acquisition of languages. Those with higher third-grade math scores — an indicator that the kids were otherwise good learners — also benefited more from retention. Second, language skills are complementary to the education and experience acquired before migration and facilitate the transfer of these skills into the new job environment. Finally, differences in expected returns in wages and employment prospects and differences in the expected length of stay in the host country create different incentives for language acquisition. Those who were born in another country and moved to the United States benefited more from the extra year to catch up. In , OneAmerica worked with a technology partner, Learning Games Network , to integrate Xenos — an online English learning game — into the English Innovations curriculum. A US study using census data finds high correlations between the language proficiency of immigrant spouses but cannot rule out spurious relationships by assortative matching in motivations and cognitive ability—meaning that individuals with similar language motivation and cognitive ability might be more likely to select each other as mates .
Language skills increase with time spent in the destination country through exposure and learning by doing. Understanding the underlying processes of language acquisition and the factors associated with acquiring proficiency is vital for designing effective policy measures to increase language acquisition and economic and social integration of immigrants.
Finally, public policy can affect the incentives for language acquisition through citizenship policies.
How does language affect immigrants
Incentives for investing in language skills are also influenced by the expected length of stay. Those with higher third-grade math scores — an indicator that the kids were otherwise good learners — also benefited more from retention. A key factor determining the degree of exposure to the host country language is locational choice. This simple representation hides a large degree of heterogeneity, however. Pre-migration exposure might also take place through foreign language education in school or exposure to foreign language television programs, books, or other media. Alongside English language proficiency, digital literacy is also becoming increasingly necessary for success in our technologically advancing society. Again, this is likely driven by the lack of data on participation in language courses, the self-selection of immigrants, and the difficulty of constructing counterfactual situations what would have happened if the policy measures had not been introduced. Low language proficiency is often highlighted as a contributor to failed integration, and it can fuel anti-immigration attitudes. By providing subsidized language classes, these institutions aim at among other goals making a country a more attractive destination for international migrants. Having children might increase social interaction with the native-born population, but it might also detach the primary care-giving parent from the labor market. Language skills also ease the acquisition of additional education and experience in the host country. Migrants who travel back and forth to and from their home country circular migrants and who plan to return after a short time in the host country might have lower incentives to invest in language acquisition than permanent or long-term immigrants. The strength of this program lies in its adaptability to different learning contexts. In seminal work on this issue, the determinants were classified into three groups: those shaping the ability and efficiency of acquiring a new language, those affecting the degree to which immigrants are exposed to the host country language, and those that set economic incentives for acquiring the language .
Finally, except for there is a lack of evidence on the effectiveness and efficiency of public policy measures aimed at influencing language acquisition.
Community volunteers serve as tutors in class at a student-volunteer ratio, providing students with even more practice to use the skills they are learning with native English speakers. The most straightforward option is to subsidize language classes.
While there are few empirical studies of the effectiveness of public policy measures, the suggested policy channels do draw directly on the empirical base of factors influencing the language acquisition of immigrants.
Author's main message Immigrants who fail to achieve adequate proficiency in the host country language generally fail to achieve economic and social integration. A strong relationship between linguistic distance and achieved levels of language proficiency has been documented using German, American and Canadian microdata  and results on international tests .
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