The Formalist adage that the purpose of literature was "to make the stones stonier" nicely expresses their notion of literariness. Lenin and Philosophy: And Other Essays. Wellek, Rene and Warren, Austin.
Marxist theorist often champion authors sympathetic to the working classes and authors whose work challenges economic equalities found in capitalist societies. Using the various poststructuralist and postmodern theories that often draw on disciplines other than the literary—linguistic, anthropological, psychoanalytic, and philosophical—for their primary insights, literary theory has become an interdisciplinary body of cultural theory.
Though not the first writer to explore the historical condition of postcolonialism, the Palestinian literary theorist Edward Said's book Orientalism is generally regarded as having inaugurated the field of explicitly "Postcolonial Criticism" in the West.
The key figures of the formalist movement included Roman Jakobson, Viktor Shklovsky, and Juri Tiniyanov; these core group members promoted an approach to literature that was ordered and scientific Bennett Jameson, Frederic.
After the New Criticism. New York: Harcourt Brace, What Does Formalism Mean? Though the two fields are increasingly finding points of intersection—the work of bell hooks, for example—and are both activist intellectual enterprises, "Ethnic Studies and "Postcolonial Criticism" have significant differences in their history and ideas.
Accepting the idea, they believed that literary work must be understood and analyzed in isolation. Feminist thought and practice analyzes the production of literature and literary representation within the framework that includes all social and cultural formations as they pertain to the role of women in history.
This dispute was taken up anew by the French theorist Roland Barthes in his famous declaration of the "Death of the Author.