Athens and Sparta differed primarily in their political, social, and economical aspects. At this time, two prominent city- states named Athens and Sparta stood as two pillars in the Greek history.
This enhanced the prestige of Sparta. Every man of sparta was a hero. For the political unity, religious practices, trade and commerce, the people of a particular race lived together in one area and formed a city state.
The evidence suggests that Sparta, relatively inaccessible because of the topography of the Taygetan plain, was secure from early on: it was never fortified. To bring parity in the economic field, he divided the land of Sparta and Lakonia into 9, and 30, equal divisions and offered each piece of land to a man.
These mansions were destroyed by earthquake and fire, and archaeologists consider them the possible palace of Menelaus himself.
There was also an executive committee of five ephors ephoroi chosen by lot from the citizen body, able only to serve for a maximum of one year and who were ineligible for future office.
Draco, Solon, Pisistratus, and Cleithenes were four leaders that greatly influenced the political development of Athens. The likely total of 40,—50, made Sparta one of the larger Greek city-states;   however, according to Thucydides, the population of Athens in BC was ,—, making it much larger.
Spartan women, better fed from childhood and fit from exercise, stood a far better chance of reaching old age than their sisters in other Greek cities, where the median age for death was According to Myron of Priene  of the middle 3rd century BC: "They assign to the Helots every shameful task leading to disgrace.